“What we have detected is a strong water absorption feature with some evidence of a cloud layer deep in the atmosphere at the base altitude of the measurements we have made,” Wakeford told Seeker. “This cloud would not be made of water due to the high temperature of the atmosphere but would instead be more exotic and composed most likely of Na2S (di-sodium sulfide). At the altitudes we probed with these observations and the strong water vapor absorption signature, this is a relatively cloudless portion of the atmosphere.”
Measuring the abundance of atmospheric water provides information about the proportion of elements in the atmosphere that are heavier than hydrogen and helium, a value astronomers refer to as the metallicity. Surprisingly, it was lower than expected, only about 4.8 times that of the Sun — less than that of Neptune and Uranus, for example, and closer to the value for Jupiter.
“HAT-P-26b is the first to buck the trend seen with our solar system and other exoplanets, which suggest that lower mass planets have higher metallicities,” Wakeford said via email. “As the first to buck this trend, HAT-P-26b will be an important marker in our understanding of planetary formation scenarios.”
When a distant planet transits, or passes in front its host star, starlight gets filtered through the planet’s atmosphere. Using a spectrometer, astronomers can measure the light to see what elements are present in the planet’s atmosphere.
“This is the strongest water absorption feature that has measured for an exoplanet of this size,” Wakeford said. “Additionally, what is most important is that we have been able to use this detection to approximate the overall metallicity of the atmosphere based on the water abundance, and compared to similar sized planets in our solar system we find that HAT-P-26b has a much lower metallicity.”
This suggests that it formed differently — perhaps closer to the star or late in the lifetime of the disk around the star — compared to Neptune.
In our own solar system, the metallicity in Jupiter, which is five times greater than the Sun, and Saturn (10 times), suggest that these “gas giants” are made almost entirely of hydrogen and helium. Neptune and Uranus, however, are richer in the heavier elements, with metallicities of about 100 times that of the sun.